National Turkey Federation Fact Sheet

Turkey Terms and Labels Describing Various Production Methods

More than 46 million turkeys are expected to be eaten on Thanksgiving and another 22 million for Christmas. With so many turkeys being consumed around the holidays, the National Turkey Federation wants to help take some of the guess work out of the numerous terms and labels that describe various production methods.

Whatever type of turkey you purchase for the holiday feast, note that a turkey farmer’s number- one priority is the safety and health of their flock, because a healthy turkey will ultimately be the best quality product for consumers.

Conventional: Conventional turkeys are raised in scientifically designed, environmentally controlled barns that provide maximum protection from predators, disease and bad weather. They are given medications to prevent illness and to suppress organisms that are potentially harmful. This is the type of turkey that most Americans associate with Thanksgiving. These turkeys are typically sold fresh and frozen in supermarkets across the United States.

Free Range: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) says the term “free range” or “free roaming” can be used to describe poultry that “has been allowed access to the outside.” There are a limited number of “free range” turkeys being produced and most of them are for the holiday season. There are fewer “free range” turkeys because of geographic and climatological considerations, making warm weather the most conducive for allowing birds access to the outside.

Organic: A turkey labeled “organic” has the approval and certification of the USDA. The government standard includes strict regulations on organic feed and free range access and allows no antibiotics. There are also fewer “organic” turkeys for some of the same reasons that there are fewer “free range” turkeys.

Broad-Breasted White: This is the most common type of turkey raised in the United States. This farm-raised domesticated turkey has been transformed in shape and size to meet the demands of consumer’s taste preferences. This turkey yields a higher breast meat content, which is highly regarded by the U.S. consumer.

Heritage: The term refers to the turkey breeds indigenous to the Americas, dating to early Colonial times. They are Beltsville Small White, Bourbon Red, Jersey Buff, Narragansett, Royal Palm, Slate, Standard Bronze and White Holland. As a result of the market dominance of the conventional Broad-Breasted White, these breeds had been slowly shrinking in population. In 2001, Slow Food USA launched an initiative with the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy to work with small farms to return the heritage turkey to the marketplace. Heritage turkeys grow at a much slower rate than Broad-Breasted Whites. The result is a smaller bird with flavor some describe as gamy; and a thicker layer of fat surrounding the breast.

The National Turkey Federation is the advocate for all segments of the U.S. turkey industry, providing services and conducting activities that increase demand for its member’s products. The federation also protects and enhances its member’s ability to effectively and profitably provide wholesome, high quality, nutritious turkey products.